FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Q.1. What are breeder, foundation and certified seeds?
Breeder seed: Breeder seed is seed or vegetative propagating material directly controlled by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder of the breeding program or institution and/ or seed whose production is personally supervised by a qualified plant breeder and which provides the source for the initial and recurring increase of foundation seed. Breeder seed shall be genetically so pure as to guarantee that in the subsequent generation i.e. certified foundation seed class shall confirm to the prescribed standards of genetic purity. The other quality factors of breeder seed such as physical purity, inert matter, germination etc. shall be indicated on the label on actual basis.The colour of the breeder label shall be Golden yellow.
Certified Foundation seed: Foundation seed shall be the progeny of Breeder seed or be produced from foundation seed, which can be clearly traced to Breeder seed. Thus foundation seed can even be produced from foundation seed. During the production of Foundation Seed the minimum seed certification standard shall be the same for both foundation seed stage-I and II. The production of foundation seed stage I and II shall be supervised and approved by the certification agency and be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and genetic purity and shall be required to confirm to certification standards specified for the crop / variety being certified.The certification tag shall be of white colour both for foundation stage-I and II seed class.
Certified Seed: Certified seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed and its production shall be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity according to the standards prescribed for the crop being certified. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed provided this reproduction does not exceed three generations beyond foundation seed stage-I.The certification tag shall be of blue colour for certified seed class.
Q.2 What is hybrid seed?
The first generation resulting from crossing of two varieties or parents. Hybrid (certified) seed is the first generation resulting from the cross of two approved inbred lines or parents, one of which is male sterile.
Q.3 What is Labeled Seed?
The seed notified under Section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966, such seed sold in the market has to be labeled as prescribed under Section 6(a) and (b) of the Seeds Act Such seed is called Labeled Seed.
Q.4 What is process and procedure of certification of seeds?
Seed Certification is done in six phases
- Receipt and scrutiny of application;
- Verification of seed source, class and other requirements of the seed used for raising the seed crop;
- Field inspections to verify conformity to the prescribed field standards;
- Supervision of post-harvest stages including processing and packaging;
- Seed sampling and analysis, including genetic purity test and/or seed health test, if any, in order to verify conformity to the prescribed standards;
- and Grant of certificate and certification tags, tagging and sealing.
Q.5 Which are the agencies that can produce certified seeds?
Anybody willing to come forward to produce certified seed can produce certified seed. At present State Seeds Corporations, National Seeds Corporation, State Departments of Agriculture, Private Companies, Cooperatives and individual farmers are producing certified seed.
Q.6 What is Seed Replacement Rate?
Seed Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified/quality seeds other than the farm saved seed.
Q.7 What are Genetically Modified, transgenic crop/ seed?
Genetically Modified seed is developed by application of biotechnology wherein a specific gene from other genus is inserted by genetic manipulation to make it resistant against certain characteristics like insect pest resistance, for example in the Bt. cotton, Cry1 AC gene has been incorporated in the cotton seed from a soil bacteria i.ebacillus thuringiensis which make it resistant against the attack of boll worm.
Q 8. To whom the Growers/producers have to approach for offering areas for certification?
Individual growers/ Producers who intends to take up certified seed Production shall approach the concerned Seed Certification Officer of KSSOCA of that Jurisdiction.
Q 9. What is Certification Sample?
Certification sample means a sample of seed drawn by a certification agency or by a duly authorised representative of a certification agency established under section 8 or recognised under section 18 of the Act.
Q 10. Who is Certified Seed Producer?
Certified seed producer means a person/organization who grows or distributes certified seed in accordance with the procedures and standards of the certification.
Q 11. What is the eligibility requirement of a Crop Variety for certification?
Seed of only those varieties which are notified under Section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966 shall be eligible for certification. Any variety to become eligible for seed certification should meet the following requirement:
- General requirements
- Should be a notified variety under Section-5 of the Indian Seed Act, 1966.
- Should be in the production chain and its pedigree should be traceable.
- Field standards- Field standards include the selection of site, isolation requirements, spacing, planting ratio, border rows etc.
- Specific requirements- Presence of off-types in any seed crop, pollen-shedders in Sorghum, Bajra, Sunflower etc., Shedding tassels in maize crosses, disease affected plants, objectionable weed plants etc., should be within the maximum permissible levels for certification.
- Seed standards- Minimum seed certification standards have been evolved crop-wise.
Q 12. What is Certified Seed?
Certified Seed means, seed that fulfills all requirements for certification provided by the Act and the rules and to the container of which the certification tag is attached
Q 13. In a single application what is the maximum area that can be offered for certification?
There is' no minimum or maximum limit for the area offered by a person for certification, provided the certified seed production meets all the prescribed requirements in a single application, it does not exceed ten hectares (25 acres). Additional area will be treated as separate unit.
Q 14. What is Seed Lot?
A seed lot is a physically identifiable quantity of seed which is homogeneous.
Q 15. Whether Registration and Inspection fee will be refundable?
No refund of inspection and registration fee will be made, once the seed plot is visited/ inspected by the seed certification officer around the date of planting reported in Form No I, irrespective of the fact that whether sowing or planting is done or not by that date.
Q 16. What is service sample?
Service sample means a sample submitted to the Central Seed Testing laboratory or State Seed Testing Laboratory for testing, the results to be used as information for seeding, selling or labeling purposes.
Q 17. What is the Role of Seed Producer during Harvesting, Threshing & Transportation?
Seed crop meeting field standards for certification shall be harvested, threshed and transported to the seed processing plant in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Certification Agency. During these operations, seed producer will take all precautions to safeguard the seed from admixture and other causes of seed deterioration.